Association between soul, sense organ, mind, and objects of sense organs produce the feeling of happiness and unhappiness. Both the types of sensations disappear when the mind is completely concentrated and blended with in soul and supernatural power. This state is known as “yoga” as per the sages. – Charaka Samhita 1.138 – 139
Moksha is a state of absolute detachment from all contacts by virtue of the absence of RAJAS and TAMAS of mind due to nullification of effects of past deeds. – Charaka Samhita 1.142
Nishtha means liberation from misery i.e. in the form of salvation and the means for salvation is naishthiki. It is devoid of upadha (desires). It is the way for the ultimate aim of life, one among four objects of human life, the salvation. – Charaka Samhita 1.14
Desire is the root cause for all miseries. Sacrifice of all desires is the factor to vanish all miseries. As the silkworm weaves itself with suicidal threads, in the same way desire makes the person suffer from misery.
An intelligent person avoids objects of senses, considering them dangerous fire. He will be away from worldly pleasures. So that miseries can never conquer him, where as the ignorant person will always be bounded with worldly pleasures and miseries. – Charaka Samhita 1/15 -17
Love, hatred, etc are called as attachments and they are the root cause of misery. Detachment from the six enemies i.e. desire, hatred, greed, attachment, ego, jealousy, is ultimate bliss. – Charaka Samhita 5.8
Detachment is the ultimate peace, eternal and supreme. It is the right path to attain salvation. – Charaka Samhita 5.11
Attachment is produced by ignorance, desire, and hatred. Ahamkara, sanga etc… arising from attachment overcome an individual as a large tree with many branches overshadows a smaller and younger tree.
Ahamkara is the egoistic feeling such as I am endowed with beauty, money, intelligence, character, education, place, age, strength, influence etc etc etc…
Deeds by body, speech and mind which are not conducive for the attainment of liberation are sanga.
Doubt regarding existence of effect of past deeds, salvation, soul, life after death is samshaya.
Abhisamplava is feeling such as I am first in any situation, I am creator, I am blessed person by nature, I have an excellent state of health, sense organs, intelligence, memory, etc…
Abhiyavapata is attachment about father, mother, brother, sister, wife, children, relatives, friends, and servants. They belong to me and I to them.
Vipratyaya is when someone lacks the knowledge of what should be done and what should not be done. Ignorance about good, bad, conducive and non conducive and opposite acts.
Avishesha is the inability to differentiate between conscious and unconscious elements, nature and its modifications, attachment and detachment.
Nivritti (staying away from all attachments) is the path of moksha (apavargah). It is the only path of yoga. It is the highest path. Detachment is the path of moksha.
Following the principles of preceptor such as ways to attain salvation
Understanding that the world is nothing but suffering, detach from the loka and find a guru.
Follow the guru’s teachings
Worship the Agni
Study and follow the Dharmashastras
Comprehend what is taught and bring it into one’s action
Serve those that are true
Stay away from those that are not true
Do not keep the company of those that are wicked
Speak truth, and for the welfare of all creatures.
Don’t speak harsh
Speak when it is necessary only and after thinking about what is beneficial and needed to be said.
See all the creatures as one.
Never think of, dream of, desire the company of, and never talk to women.
Avoid all actions that create attachments and follow actions that lead to detachment
Do not have desire to wear cloths, just enough to cover the genitals
Wear saffron coloured clothes
Keep a needle and needle box to fix the cloth when worn
Keep a water pot to bathe
Keep a staff
Keep a bowl to collect alms
Eat only one meal a day of satvika foods like rice, milk, and ghee. As only enough to live (pranadharna) as this keeps one healthy and happy (also stated in 25th Chapter of Charaka)
Keep a mat and pillow of grass and leaves to recover from tiredness (not for sleep)
Bind the body for stability and to make it still for meditation
Live in a forest without a house
Avoid all actions that lead to drowsiness, sleep or lethargy
Avoid anything that brings instability of happiness and grief to the mind
Before laying down, sitting, moving, seeing, eating, walking, think about what is beneficial and not beneficial before acting.
Remain undisturbed when there is appreciation or praise, criticism or insult
Remain tolerant and stable in hunger, thirst, tiredness, exertion, heat, cold, wind, rain, happiness, and grief.
Unmoved and undisturbed by grief, misery, ego, anxiety, intoxication, greed, attachment, jealousy, fear, and anger
Have the view that attachment is produced by ignorance, desire, and hatred and that ahamkara, sanga, etc… arising from attachment, overcome an individual, therefore staying away from them.
Considers the loka (universe) and Purusha (man) as one in the same
Fears wasting time of that which conducive to moksha
No mental or physical troubles to do yoga sadhana
Always engaging dhi, dhrtti, and smrtti into the path of moksha and detachment
Controls the indriyas and mind
Having atma always control the mind
Keeping in mind that the body is made of the 6 dhatus and that the atma is one of them
Realization that all in this material world is impermanent and and that all attachments are the cause of misery and suffering
All attachments are inferior
All that is in the path of moksha is the best
These are the factors for attainment on the path of moksha
– Charaka Samhita Sharirasthana 5.11 – 12
By following these means of salvation the mind becomes pure and free like a mirror that is cleaned by an oil cloth and brush. The solar system is clean in absence of Rahu, the sky is clear and the sun shines pure and bright light by the absence of clouds, dust, smoke, and fog just as the mind that has no attachments will become pure (amala). As the lamp shines bright with the lamp cover protecting similarly the light of atma will glow in the following of these measures.
– Charaka Samhita Sharirasthana 5.13 – 15